SpecMax: Spectrum Trading and Harvesting Designs for Multi-Hop Communications in CRNs


Project Information

  • "CAREER: SpecMax: Spectrum Trading and Harvesting Designs for Multi-Hop Communications in Cognitive Radio Networks", National Science Foundation, August 1, 2014-July 31, 2019.
  • This webpage and the materials provided here are based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CNS-1350230.

    Project Summary

    The dilemma between wireless services' booming growth and the unlicensed spectrum's scarcity has shoved static spectrum allocation off the edge. Cognitive radio (CR) is a revolutionary paradigm which releases spectrum from shackles of authorized licenses, and enables unlicensed secondary users (SUs) to opportunistically access to the under-utilized licensed spectrum. Due to the great economic value of spectrum, CR technology has also promoted many spectrum trading designs in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). Unfortunately, most existing designs rely on the premise that the SUs' hand-held devices have powerful CR capability, which may not be easily embedded into light-weight small-sized radios of SUs' devices. Besides, existing designs mainly focus on per-user based spectrum trading for single-hop communications, and lack deep understanding of multi-hop end-to-end service provision. Moreover, the prevalent idea of choosing the best band makes secondary services vulnerable to interruption due to the returns of primary users. Finally, to facilitate spectrum trading, more accurate information of spectrum availability should be provided. Motivated by these facts, this project aims to construct a framework to investigate the spectrum trading in multi-hop CRNs, which includes the study of (1) designing a novel CRN architecture to facilitate the accessing of SUs without CR devices, (2) extending spectrum trading for multi-hop CR communications, (3) harvesting spectrum under spectrum uncertainty, and (4) constructing a fine-grained mobile spectrum map. The results of this project can advance the state of the art in spectrum trading designs and enrich the scientific knowledge of network designs and network economics. The project is thus crucial to the success of CRNs, which can provide great opportunities for job creation, greater productivity, and economic growth. This project also involves research publications/talks, curriculum development, minority student recruitment, training and mentoring, and outreach to K-12 students.


    Personnel

    Principal Investigators

    Graduate Students

    Undergraduate Students


    Publications

    Copyright Notice

    Papers downloadable on this page are under copyright protection. Please read and conform to all applicable copyright laws. Most downloadable papers are in PDF format, which can be viewed by PDF reader freely available from Adobe. Your comments are always welcome, please drop me a line at mpan2@uh.edu

    Papers in Refereed Journals

    1. Jingyi Wang, Yan Long, Jie Wang, Sai Mounika Errapotu, Hongyan Li, Miao Pan, and Zhu Han, "D-FROST: Distributed Frequency Reuse Based Opportunistic Spectrum Trading via Matching with Evolving Preferences", IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (TWC), Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 3794-3806, June 2018.
    2. Chensi Zhang, Jianhua Ge, Miao Pan, Fengkui Gong, and Jinjin Men, "One Stone Two Birds: A Joint Thing and Relay Selection for Diverse IoT Networks", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (TVT), Vol. 67, No. 6, pp. 5424-5434, June 2018.
    3. Qing Ji, Zhi Ding, Ning Wang, Miao Pan, and Gangbing Song, "A Novel Waveform Optimization Scheme for Piezoelectric Sensors Wire-Free Charging in the Tightly Insulated Environment", IEEE Internet of Things Journal (J-IoT), Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 1936-1946, June 2018.
    4. Zi Li, Qingqi Pei, Ian Markwood, Yao Liu, Miao Pan, and Hongning Li, "Location Privacy Violation via GPS-agnostic Smart Phone Car Tracking", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (TVT), Vol. 67, No. 6, pp. 5042-5053, June 2018.
    5. Haichuan Ding, Chi Zhang, Xuanheng Li, Jianqing Liu, Miao Pan, Yuguang Fang, and Shigang Chen, "Session-Based Cooperation in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Network-Level Approach", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (ToN), Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 685-698, April 2018.
    6. Jie Wang, Liming Zhang, Qinghua Gao, Miao Pan, and Hongyu Wang, "Device-free Wireless Sensing in Complex Scenarios Using Spatial Structural Information", IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (TWC), vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 2432-2442, April 2018.
    7. Yanru Zhang, Yunan Gu, Miao Pan, Nguyen H. Tran, Zaher Dawy and Zhu Han, "Multi-Dimensional Incentive Mechanism in Mobile Crowdsourcing with Moral Hazard", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing (TMC), Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 604-616, March 2018.
    8. Wenjun Xu, Xue Li, Chia-Han Lee, Miao Pan, and Zhiyong Feng, "Joint Sensing Duration Adaptation, User Matching, and Power Allocation for Cognitive OFDM-NOMA Systems", IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (TWC), vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 1269-1282, February 2018.
    9. Yunan Gu, Chunxiao Jiang, Lin X. Cai, Miao Pan, Lingyang Song, and Zhu Han, "Dynamic Path To Stability in LTE-Unlicensed with User Mobility: A Matching Framework", IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (TWC), Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 4547-4561, July 2017.
    10. Yanru Zhang, Chunxiao Jiang, Lingyang Song, Miao Pan, Zaher Dawy and Zhu Han, "Incentive Mechanism for Mobile Crowdsourcing Using an Optimized Tournament Model", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 880-892, April 2017.
    11. Xuanheng Li, Yi Sun, Yuanxiong Guo, Xin Fu and Miao Pan, "Dolphins First: Dolphin-Aware Communications in Multi-hop Underwater Cognitive Acoustic Networks", IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (TWC), Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 2043-2056, April 2017.
    12. Yanru Zhang, Lingyang Song, Miao Pan, Zaher Dawy and Zhu Han, "Non-Cash Auction for Spectrum Trading in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Contract Theoretical Model with Joint Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 643-653, March 2017.
    13. Yi Liu, Rong Yu, Miao Pan, Yan Zhang and Shengli Xie, "SD-MAC: Spectrum Database-Driven MAC Protocol for Cognitive Machine-to-Machine Networks", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (TVT), Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 1456-1467, February 2017.
    14. Zaixin Lu, Wei Wayne Li, Yawei Pang, Miao Pan, Weili Wu and Zhu Han, "Collaborative Data and Energy Transmission for Energy-rechargeable Mobile Devices", IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (TWC), Vol. 15, No. 12, pp. 8525-8536, December 2016.
    15. Weixian Liao, Ming Li, Sergio Salinas, Pan Li, and Miao Pan, "Energy-Source-Aware Cost Optimization for Green Cellular Networks with Strong Stability", IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing (TETC), Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 541-555, December 2016.
    16. Jingyi Wang, Wenbo Ding, Yuanxiong Guo, Chi Zhang, Miao Pan and Jian Song, "M3-STEP: Matching Based Multi-Radio Multi-Channel Spectrum Trading with Evolving Preferences", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), Vol. 34, No. 11, pp. 3014-3024, November 2016.
    17. Xuanheng Li, Haichuan Ding, Miao Pan, Yi Sun and Yuguang Fang, "Users First: Service-Oriented Spectrum Auction with a Two-Tier Framework Support", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), Vol. 34, No. 11, pp. 2999-3013, November 2016.
    18. Erte Pan, Miao Pan, and Zhu Han, "Tensor Voting Techniques and Applications in Mobile Trace Inference," (Invited) IEEE Access, Special Issue on Artificial Intelligence Enabled Networking.
    19. Jie Wang, Qinghua Gao, Miao Pan, Xiao Zhang, Yan Yu and Hongyu Wang, "Towards Accurate Device-Free Wireless Localization with a Saddle Surface Model", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (TVT), Vol. 65, No. 8, pp. 6665-6677, August 2016.
    20. Yanru Zhang, Lanchao Liu, Yunan Gu, Dusit Niyato, Miao Pan and Zhu Han, ``Offloading in Software Defined Network at Edge with Information Asymmetry: A Contract Theoretical Approach," (Invited) Journal of Signal Processing Systems, Vol. 81, No. 2, pp. 1-13, November 2015.
    21. Yunan Gu, Yanru Zhang, Miao Pan and Zhu Han, ``Matching and Cheating in Device to Device Communications Underlaying Cellular Networks," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications: Recent Advances in Heterogenous Cellular Networks, Vol. 33, No. 10, pp. 2156-2166, October 2015.
    22. Zaixin Lu, Wei Wayne Li and Miao Pan, ``Maximum lifetime scheduling for target coverage and data collection in wireless sensor networks," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 64, No. 2, pp. 714-727, February 2015.
    23. Yan Long, Hongyan Li, Hao Yue, Miao Pan and Yuguang Fang, `` SUM: spectrum utilization maximization in energy-constrained cooperative cognitive radio networks,'' IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications: Cognitive Radio Series, Vol.32, No.11, pp.2105-2116, November 2014.

    Papers in Refereed Conferences

    1. Xinyue Zhang, Jingyi Wang, Hongning Li, Yuanxiong Guo, Qingqi Pei, Pan Li, and Miao Pan, "Data-Driven Caching with Users' Local Differential Privacy in Information-Centric Networks", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'18), Abu Dhabi, UAE, December 9-13, 2018.
    2. Jingyi Wang, Xinyue Zhang, Haijun Zhang, Hai Lin, Hideki Tode, Miao Pan, and Zhu Han, "Data-Driven Optimization for Utility Providers with Differential Privacy of Users' Energy Profile", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'18), Abu Dhabi, UAE, December 9-13, 2018.
    3. Debing Wei, Li Yan, Xuanheng Li, Jie Wang, Jiefu Chen, Miao Pan, and Yahong Rosa Zheng, "Ferrite Assisted Geometry-Conformal Magnetic Induction Antenna and Subsea Communications for AUVs", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'18), Abu Dhabi, UAE, December 9-13, 2018.
    4. Dian Shi, Jiahao Ding, Sai Mounika Errapotu, Hao Yue, Wenjun Xu, Xiangwei Zhou, and Miao Pan, "Deep Q-Network Based Route Scheduling for Transportation Network Company Vehicles", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'18), Abu Dhabi, UAE, December 9-13, 2018.
    5. Mohamed A. ElMossallamy, Zhu Han, Miao Pan, Riku Jäntti, Karim G. Seddik, and Geoffrey Ye Li, "Backscatter Communications over Ambient OFDM Signals using Null Subcarriers", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'18), Abu Dhabi, UAE, December 9-13, 2018.
    6. Liming Zhang, Jie Wang, Qinghua Gao, Xuanheng Li, Miao Pan, and Yuguang Fang, "LetFi: Letter Recognition in the Air Using CSI", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'18), Abu Dhabi, UAE, December 9-13, 2018.
    7. Jiaqi Liu, Shengjie Guo, Sa Xiao, Miao Pan, Xiangwei Zhou, Geoffrey Ye Li, Gang Wu, and Shaoqian Li, "Resource Allocation for Cooperative D2D-Enabled Wireless Caching Networks", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'18), Abu Dhabi, UAE, December 9-13, 2018.
    8. Ruifeng Duan, Riku Jäntti, Mohamed A ElMossallamy, Zhu Han, and Miao Pan, "Multi-Antenna Receiver for Ambient Backscatter Communication Systems", IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC'18), Kalamata, Greece, June 25-28, 2018.
    9. Haijun Zhang, Ning Yang, Keping Long, Miao Pan, George K. Karagiannidis, and Arumugam Nallanathan, "Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Secure NOMA Networks", IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Spring'18), Porto, Portugal, June 3-6, 2018.
    10. Khaled Rabieh, Miao Pan, Zhu Han, and Vitaly Ford, "SRPV: A Scalable Revocation Scheme for Pseudonyms-based Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'18), Kansas City, MO, May 20-24, 2018.
    11. Debing Wei, Li Yan, Xuanheng Li, Yi Sun, Dongfeng Yuan, Jiefu Chen, and Miao Pan, "Exploiting Magnetic Field Analysis to Characterize MI Wireless Communications in Subsea Environments", International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC'18), Maui, HI, March 5-8, 2018.
    12. Li Yan, Debing Wei, Miao Pan, and Jiefu Chen, "Downhole wireless communication using magnetic induction technique", United States National Committee of URSI National Radio Science Meeting (USNC-URSI NRSM'18), Boulder, CO, January 4-7, 2018.
    13. Zaixin Lu, Jd Youngs, Zhi Chen, and Miao Pan, "Novel Scheduling for Energy Management in Microgrid", International Conference on Combinatorial Optimization and Applications (COCOA'17), Shanghai, China, December 16-18, 2017.
    14. Jingyi Wang, Yanmin Gong, Lijun Qian, Riku Jäntti, Miao Pan, and Zhu Han, "Primary Users' Operational Privacy Preservation via Data-Driven Optimization", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'17), Singapore, December 4-8, 2017. (Best Paper Award)
    15. Li Yan, Debing Wei, Miao Pan, and Jiefu Chen, "High speed borehole telemetry system using magnetic induction", International Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Symposium, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China, August 1-4, 2017.
    16. Oluwaseyi Omotere, Lijun Qian, Riku Jäntti, Miao Pan, and Zhu Han, "Big RF Data Assisted Cognitive Radio Network Coexistence in 3.5GHz Band", International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN'17), Vancouver, Canada, July 31-August 3, 2017.
    17. Zhe Yu, Yuanxiong Guo, and Miao Pan, "Coalitional Datacenter Energy Cost Optimization in Electricity Markets", ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems (ACM e-Energy'17), Hong Kong, China, May 17-19, 2017.
    18. Sai Mounika Errapotu, Justin Loveless, Rong Yu, Shaolei Ren, Miao Pan, and Zhu Han, "Privacy Preserving Clock Auction for Emergency Demand Response in Colocation Data Centers", IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'17), Paris, France, May 21-25, 2017.
    19. Yunan Gu, Li Wang, Miao Pan and Zhu Han, "Exploiting the Stable Fixture Matching Game for Mobile Crowd Sensing: A Local Event Sharing Framework", IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'17), Paris, France, May 21-25, 2017.
    20. Li Yan, Debing Wei, Miao Pan, and Jiefu Chen, "Magnetic Induction for MWD Telemetry System", 2017 Texas Symposium on Wireless and Microwave Circuits and Systems, Waco, TX, 30-31 March, 2017.
    21. Sai Mounika Errapotu, Jingyi Wang, Zaixin Lu, Wei Li, Miao Pan, and Zhu Han, ``Bidding Privacy Preservation for Dynamic Matching Based Spectrum Trading", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'16), Washington, DC, December 4-8, 2016.
    22. Jingyi Wang, Wenbo Ding, Yuanxiong Guo, Chi Zhang, Miao Pan, and Jian Song, ``Dynamic Matching Based Distributed Spectrum Trading in Multi-Radio Multi-Channel CRNs", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'16), Washington, DC, December 4-8, 2016.
    23. Luyao Niu, Yuanxiong Guo, Hongning Li, and Miao Pan, ``A Nash Bargaining Approach to Emergency Demand Response in Colocation Data Centers", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'16), Washington, DC, December 4-8, 2016.
    24. Yunan Gu, Lin X. Cai, Miao Pan, Lingyang Song and Zhu Han, ``Exploiting the Stable Fixture Matching Game for Content Sharing in D2D-based LTE-V2X Communications", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'16), Washington, DC, December 4-8, 2016.
    25. Jingyi Wang, Yan Long, Jie Wang, Sai Mounika Errapotu, Yuanxiong Guo and Miao Pan, ``Distributed Spectrum Trading via Dynamic Matching with Evolving Preferences", IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC'16), Chengdu, China, July 27-29, 2016.
    26. Zaixin Lu, Weili Wu, Wei Li and Miao Pan, ``Efficient Scheduling Algorithms for On-Demand Wireless Data Broadcast", IEEE International Conference on Computer Communication (INFOCOM'16), San Francisco, CA, April 10-15, 2016.
    27. Xuanheng Li, Miao Pan, Yang Song, Yi Sun and Yuguang Fang, ``Economic-Robust Session based Spectrum Trading in Multi-hop Cognitive Radio Networks", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'15), San Diego, CA, December 6-10, 2015. (Best Paper Award)
    28. Yunan Gu, Yanru Zhang, Miao Pan and Zhu Han, "Student Admission Matching based Content-Cache Allocation", IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC'15), New Orleans, LA, March 9-12, 2015.
    29. Fahira Sangare, Ali Arab, Miao Pan, Lijun Qian, Suresh Khator and Zhu Han, "RF Energy Harvesting for WSNs via Dynamic Control of Unmanned Vehicle Charging", IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC'15), New Orleans, LA, March 9-12, 2015.
    30. Yanru Zhang, Yunan Gu, Lanchao Liu, Miao Pan, Zaher Dawy and Zhu Han, "Incentive Mechanism in Crowdsourcing with Moral Hazard", IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC'15), New Orleans, LA, March 9-12, 2015.
    31. Bin Fu, Chuanhe Huang, Zaixin Lu, Miao Pan and Weili Wu, "Minimizing the Access Time of Multi-item Requests in Wireless Data Broadcast Environments", IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks (MSN'14), Maui, HI, December 19-21, 2014.
    32. Yawei Pang, Yanru Zhang, Yunan Gu, Miao Pan, Zhu Han and Pan Li, "Efficient Data Collection for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Clusters in Harsh Terrains Using UAVs", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, December 8-12, 2014.
    33. Yunan Gu, Yanru Zhang, Miao Pan and Zhu Han, "Cheating in Matching of Device to Device Pairs in Cellular Networks", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, December 8-12, 2014
    34. Erte Pan, Miao Pan, Zhu Han and Vernaldo Wright, "Mobile Trace Inference Based on Tensor Voting", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, December 8-12, 2014
    35. Tingting Wu, Chi Zhang, Nenghai Yu and Miao Pan, "Quadtree-based Optimal Path Routing with the Smallest Routing Table Size", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, December 8-12, 2014
    36. Yanru Zhang, Yunan Gu, Miao Pan and Zhu Han, "Distributed Matching Based Spectrum Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, December 8-12, 2014
    37. Miao Pan, Hongyan Li, Yawei Pang, Rong Yu, Zaixin Lu and Wei Wayne Li, "Optimal Energy Replenishment and Data Collection in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, December 8-12, 2014


    Outreach and Education Activities for Broader Impact

    Course Development

    The research in this project is one of the main topics in joint undergraduate and graduate course ECE 5397/6397: Introduction to Cybersecurity I taught at Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at University of Houston in Spring 2016. It was also one of the main topics in the undergraduate level courses CS 250: Computer Networks Fundamentals and CS 450: Network Management and Security, and the graduate course CS 541: Operating Systems I taught at Texas Southern University from 2014 to 2015. The research outcomes and network design methodologies developed in this project have been extensively used as the use cases and updates for undergraduate and graduate students to stimulate students' interests in telecommunications.

    Student Mentoring

    With the project support, we have been able to support graduate and undergraduate students to carry out fundamental research on spectrum trading designs and develop new technologies for various mobile applications of multi-hop cognitive radio networks. Each week, the PI holds weekly research meeting to review the research progress and brainstorm new ideas. During the whole process, both graduate students and undergraduate students (including minority students) could not only learn to work on research problems together, but more importantly are trained on how to learn, think, and present, from which they could learn how to teach as well. In August 2014, one graduate student has successfully finished his MS study at TSU and will join University of Florida to pursuit his PhD degree. This research project is indeed fruitful and has trained strong professional work force in telecommunications.

    Research Dissemination

    Our major results have been disseminated through presentations and publications in meetings, conferences, and journals. A substantial quantity of the materials of this project have also been made publicly available online here.

    Talks/Seminars

    1. M. Pan, "Big Data Differential Privacy Preservation for Cyber-Physical Systems,'' Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China, July, 2018.
    2. J. Wang, "Primary Users' Operational Privacy Preservation via Data-Driven Optimization,'' IEEE Globecom 2017, Singapore, December, 2017.
    3. M. Pan, "Distributed Frequency Reuse Based Opportunistic Spectrum Trading via Matching with Evolving Preferences,'' School of Information Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China, July, 2016.
    4. M. Pan, "Distributed Frequency Reuse Based Opportunistic Spectrum Trading via Matching with Evolving Preferences,'' School of Information and Communication Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China, July, 2016.
    5. M. Pan, "Distributed Frequency Reuse Based Opportunistic Spectrum Trading via Matching with Evolving Preferences,'' School of Telecommunications Engineering, Xidian University, Xi'an, China, July, 2016.
    6. M. Pan, "Distributed Frequency Reuse Based Opportunistic Spectrum Trading via Matching with Evolving Preferences,'' School of Telecommunications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China, June, 2016.
    7. M. Pan, "Distributed Frequency Reuse Based Opportunistic Spectrum Trading via Matching with Evolving Preferences,'' Department of Computer Engineering, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, April, 2016.
    8. M. Pan, "Distributed Frequency Reuse Based Opportunistic Spectrum Trading via Matching with Evolving Preferences,'' Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX, March, 2016.
    9. M. Pan, "Spectrum Clouds: A Novel Spectrum Trading System for Multi-hop Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, February, 2015.
    10. M. Pan, "Spectrum Clouds: A Novel Spectrum Trading System for Multi-hop Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX, December, 2014.
    11. M. Pan, "Spectrum Clouds: A Novel Spectrum Trading System for Multi-hop Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, November, 2014.
    12. M. Pan, "Spectrum Clouds: A Novel Spectrum Trading System for Multi-hop Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Miami, Miami, FL, October, 2014.